Blockchain is a new technology for enabling anonymous transactions (that aren’t recorded in a central registry).
Authentication is how you confirm someone is who they say they are (and how apps confirm it, too).
Algorithms are rules computers use to make decisions: programmed by people, they can then make decisions that affect many other people.
Open source is a collaborative design method where volunteers write software together, then publish it for others to reuse and improve upon.
Artificial intelligence is the ability of computers to learn more and make better decisions than people, by quickly processing more data than people can.